API

Core Macros

The following macros are auto imported into all Hy modules as their base names, such that hy.core.macros.foo can be called as just foo.

^

The ^ symbol is used to denote annotations in three different contexts:

  • Standalone variable annotations.

  • Variable annotations in a setv call.

  • Function argument annotations.

They implement PEP 526 and PEP 3107.

Syntax sugar for annotate.

Here is some example syntax of all three usages:

Examples

; Annotate the variable x as an int (equivalent to `x: int`).
(^int x)
; Can annotate with expressions if needed (equivalent to `y: f(x)`).
(^(f x) y)

; Annotations with an assignment: each annotation (int, str) covers the term that
; immediately follows.
; Equivalent to: x: int = 1; y = 2; z: str = 3
(setv ^int x 1 y 2 ^str z 3)

; Annotate a as an int, c as an int, and b as a str.
; Equivalent to: def func(a: int, b: str = None, c: int = 1): ...
(defn func [^int a ^str [b None] ^int [c 1]] ...)

; Function return annotations come before the function name (if it exists)
(defn ^int add1 [^int x] (+ x 1))
(fn ^int [^int y] (+ y 2))

The rules are:

  • The value to annotate with is the value that immediately follows the caret.

  • There must be no space between the caret and the value to annotate, otherwise it will be interpreted as a bitwise XOR like the Python operator.

  • The annotation always comes (and is evaluated) before the value being annotated. This is unlike Python, where it comes and is evaluated after the value being annotated.

Note that variable annotations are only supported on Python 3.6+.

For annotating items with generic types, the of macro will likely be of use.

Note

Since the addition of type annotations, identifiers that start with ^ are considered invalid as hy would try to read them as types.

(annotate value)

Expanded form of ^. Syntactically equal to ^ and usable wherever you might use ^:

(= '^int '(annotate int))
True

(setv (annotate int) x 1)

(defn (annotate int) add1 [(annotate int) x] (+ x 1))
.

New in version 0.10.0.

. is used to perform attribute access on objects. It uses a small DSL to allow quick access to attributes and items in a nested data structure.

Examples

(. foo (bar "qux")  baz [(+ 1 2)] frob)

Compiles down to:

foo.bar("qux").baz[1 + 2].frob

. compiles its first argument (in the example, foo) as the object on which to do the attribute dereference. It uses bare symbols as attributes to access (in the example, baz, frob), Expressions as method calls (as in bar), and compiles the contents of lists (in the example, [(+ 1 2)]) for indexation. Other arguments raise a compilation error.

Access to unknown attributes raises an AttributeError. Access to unknown keys raises an IndexError (on lists and tuples) or a KeyError (on dictionaries).

(fn name #* arags)

fn, like Python’s lambda, can be used to define an anonymous function. Unlike Python’s lambda, the body of the function can comprise several statements. The parameters are similar to defn: the first parameter is vector of parameters and the rest is the body of the function. fn returns a new function. In the following example, an anonymous function is defined and passed to another function for filtering output:

=> (setv people [{:name "Alice" :age 20}
...             {:name "Bob" :age 25}
...             {:name "Charlie" :age 50}
...             {:name "Dave" :age 5}])

=> (defn display-people [people filter]
...  (for [person people] (if (filter person) (print (:name person)))))

=> (display-people people (fn [person] (< (:age person) 25)))
Alice
Dave

Just as in normal function definitions, if the first element of the body is a string, it serves as a docstring. This is useful for giving class methods docstrings:

=> (setv times-three
...   (fn [x]
...    "Multiplies input by three and returns the result."
...    (* x 3)))

This can be confirmed via Python’s built-in help function:

=> (help times-three)
Help on function times_three:

times_three(x)
Multiplies input by three and returns result
(END)
(fn/a name #* args)

fn/a is a variant of fn than defines an anonymous coroutine. The parameters are similar to defn/a: the first parameter is vector of parameters and the rest is the body of the function. fn/a returns a new coroutine.

(defn name #* args)

Define name as a function with args as the signature, annotations, and body.

defn is used to define functions. It requires two arguments: a name (given as a symbol) and a list of parameters (also given as symbols). Any remaining arguments constitute the body of the function:

(defn name [params] bodyform1 bodyform2...)

If there at least two body forms, and the first of them is a string literal, this string becomes the docstring of the function.

Parameters may be prefixed with the following special symbols. If you use more than one, they can only appear in the given order (so all positional only arguments must precede /, all positional or keyword arguments must precede a #* rest parameter or * kwonly delimiter and #** must be the last argument). This is the same order that Python requires.

/

The preceding parameters can only be supplied as positional arguments.

positional or keyword arguments:

All parameters until following / (if its supplied) but before */#*/#** can be supplied positionally or by keyword. Optional arguments may be given as two-argument lists, where the first element is the parameter name and the second is the default value. When defining parameters, a positional argument cannot follow a keyword argument.

The following example defines a function with one required positional argument as well as three optional arguments. The first optional argument defaults to None and the latter two default to \"(\" and \")\", respectively:

=> (defn format-pair [left-val [right-val None] [open-text \"(\"] [close-text \")\"]]
...  (+ open-text (str left-val) \", \" (str right-val) close-text))

=> (format-pair 3)
\"(3, None)\"

=> (format-pair \"A\" \"B\")
\"(A, B)\"

=> (format-pair \"A\" \"B\" \"<\" \">\")
\"<A, B>\"

=> (format-pair \"A\" :open-text \"<\" :close-text \">\")
\"<A, None>\"
#*

The following parameter will contain a list of 0 or more positional arguments. No other positional parameters may be specified after this one. Parameters defined after this but before #** are considered keyword only.

The following code example defines a function that can be given 0 to n numerical parameters. It then sums every odd number and subtracts every even number:

=> (defn zig-zag-sum [#* numbers]
     (setv odd-numbers (lfor x numbers :if (% x 2) x)
           even-numbers (lfor x numbers :if (= (% x 2) 0) x))
     (- (sum odd-numbers) (sum even-numbers)))

=> (zig-zag-sum)
0
=> (zig-zag-sum 3 9 4)
8
=> (zig-zag-sum 1 2 3 4 5 6)
-3
  • All following parmaeters can only be supplied as keywords. Like keyword arguments, the parameter may be marked as optional by declaring it as a two-element list containing the parameter name following by the default value. Parameters without a default are considered required:

    => (defn compare [a b * keyfn [reverse False]]
    ...  (setv result (keyfn a b))
    ...  (if (not reverse)
    ...    result
    ...    (- result)))
    => (compare \"lisp\" \"python\"
    ...         :keyfn (fn [x y]
    ...                  (reduce - (map (fn [s] (ord (get s 0))) [x y]))))
    -4
    => (compare \"lisp\" \"python\"
    ...         :keyfn (fn [x y]
    ...                   (reduce - (map (fn [s] (ord (get s 0))) [x y])))
    ...         :reverse True)
    4
    
    => (compare \"lisp\" \"python\")
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File \"<input>\", line 1, in <module>
    TypeError: compare() missing 1 required keyword-only argument: 'keyfn'
    
#**

Like #*, but for keyword arguments. The following parameter will contain 0 or more keyword arguments.

The following code examples defines a function that will print all keyword arguments and their values:

=> (defn print-parameters [#** kwargs]
...    (for [(, k v) (.items kwargs)] (print k v)))

=> (print-parameters :parameter-1 1 :parameter-2 2)
parameter_1 1
parameter_2 2

; to avoid the mangling of '-' to '_', use unpacking:
=> (print-parameters #** {\"parameter-1\" 1 \"parameter-2\" 2})
parameter-1 1
parameter-2 2

Note

Parameter names cannot be Python reserved words nor can a function be called with keyword arguments that are Python reserved words. This means that the following will raise a SyntaxError as they would in Python:

(defn afunc [a b if])
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1
    (defn afunc [a b if])
                     ^
hy.errors.HySyntaxError: parameter name cannot be Python reserved word

(dict :a 1 :from 2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1
    (dict :a 1 :from 2)
               ^
hy.errors.HySyntaxError: keyword argument cannot be Python reserved word

This only applies to parameter names and a keyword argument name. The value of the parameter or keyword argument can still be a keyword of a reserved word:

=> (defn test [a] a)
=> (test :a :from)
:from
(defn/a name lambda-list #* body)

Define name as a function with lambda-list signature and body body.

defn/a macro is a variant of defn that instead defines coroutines. It takes three parameters: the name of the function to define, a vector of parameters, and the body of the function:

Examples:
=> (defn/a name [params] body)
(defmacro name lambda-list #* body)

defmacro is used to define macros. The general format is (defmacro name [parameters] expr).

The following example defines a macro that can be used to swap order of elements in code, allowing the user to write code in infix notation, where operator is in between the operands.

Examples:
=> (defmacro infix [code]
...  (quasiquote (
...    (unquote (get code 1))
...    (unquote (get code 0))
...    (unquote (get code 2)))))
=> (infix (1 + 1))
2

The name of the macro can be given as a string literal instead of a symbol. If the name starts with #, the macro can be called on a single argument without parentheses; such a macro is called a tag macro.

=> (defmacro "#x2" [form]
...  `(do ~form ~form))
=> (setv foo 1)
=> #x2 (+= foo 1)
=> foo
3
(if test then [else None)

Evalute a test.

if respects Python truthiness, that is, a test fails if it evaluates to a “zero” (including values of len zero, None, and False), and passes otherwise, but values with a __bool__ method can override this.

if takes a test and then expression, plus an optional else expression at the end, which defaults to None. If no tests pass, if selects else.

Examples:
=> (if (money-left? account)
      (print \"let's go shopping\")
      (print \"let's go and work\"))
(await obj)

await creates an await expression. It takes exactly one argument: the object to wait for.

Examples

=> (import asyncio)
=> (defn/a main []
...    (print "hello")
...    (await (asyncio.sleep 1))
...    (print "world"))
=> (asyncio.run (main))
hello
world
(break)

break is used to break out from a loop. It terminates the loop immediately. The following example has an infinite while loop that is terminated as soon as the user enters k.

Examples

=> (while True
...   (if (= "k" (input "? "))
...       (break)
...       (print "Try again")))
(chainc #* args)

chainc creates a comparison expression. It isn’t required for unchained comparisons, which have only one comparison operator, nor for chains of the same operator. For those cases, you can use the comparison operators directly with Hy’s usual prefix syntax, as in (= x 1) or (< 1 2 3). The use of chainc is to construct chains of heterogeneous operators, such as x <= y < z. It uses an infix syntax with the general form

(chainc ARG OP ARG OP ARG…)

Hence, (chainc x <= y < z) is equivalent to (and (<= x y) (< y z)), including short-circuiting, except that y is only evaluated once.

Each ARG is an arbitrary form, which does not itself use infix syntax. Use py if you want fully Python-style operator syntax. You can also nest chainc forms, although this is rarely useful. Each OP is a literal comparison operator; other forms that resolve to a comparison operator are not allowed.

At least two ARGs and one OP are required, and every OP must be followed by an ARG.

As elsewhere in Hy, the equality operator is spelled =, not == as in Python.

(continue)

continue returns execution to the start of a loop. In the following example, (side-effect1) is called for each iteration. (side-effect2), however, is only called on every other value in the list.

Examples

=> ;; assuming that (side-effect1) and (side-effect2) are functions and
=> ;; collection is a list of numerical values
=> (for [x collection]
...   (side-effect1 x)
...   (if (% x 2)
...     (continue))
...   (side-effect2))
(do #* body)

do (called progn in some Lisps) takes any number of forms, evaluates them, and returns the value of the last one, or None if no forms were provided.

Examples

=> (+ 1 (do (setv x (+ 1 1)) x))
3
(for #* args)

for is used to evaluate some forms for each element in an iterable object, such as a list. The return values of the forms are discarded and the for form returns None.

=> (for [x [1 2 3]]
...  (print "iterating")
...  (print x))
iterating
1
iterating
2
iterating
3

In its square-bracketed first argument, for allows the same types of clauses as :hy:function:`lfor`.

=> (for [x [1 2 3]  :if (!= x 2)  y [7 8]]
...  (print x y))
1 7
1 8
3 7
3 8

Furthermore, the last argument of for can be an (else …) form. This form is executed after the last iteration of the for's outermost iteration clause, but only if that outermost loop terminates normally. If it’s jumped out of with e.g. break, the else is ignored.

=> (for [element [1 2 3]] (if (< element 3)
...                             (print element)
...                             (break))
...    (else (print "loop finished")))
1
2

=> (for [element [1 2 3]] (if (< element 4)
...                             (print element)
...                             (break))
...    (else (print "loop finished")))
1
2
3
loop finished
(assert condition [label None])

assert is used to verify conditions while the program is running. If the condition is not met, an AssertionError is raised. assert may take one or two parameters. The first parameter is the condition to check, and it should evaluate to either True or False. The second parameter, optional, is a label for the assert, and is the string that will be raised with the AssertionError. For example:

Examples

(assert (= variable expected-value))

(assert False)
; AssertionError

(assert (= 1 2) "one should equal two")
; AssertionError: one should equal two
(global sym)

global can be used to mark a symbol as global. This allows the programmer to assign a value to a global symbol. Reading a global symbol does not require the global keyword – only assigning it does.

The following example shows how the global symbol a is assigned a value in a function and is later on printed in another function. Without the global keyword, the second function would have raised a NameError.

Examples

(defn set-a [value]
  (global a)
  (setv a value))

(defn print-a []
  (print a))

(set-a 5)
(print-a)
(get coll key1 #* keys)

get is used to access single elements in collections. get takes at least two parameters: the data structure and the index or key of the item. It will then return the corresponding value from the collection. If multiple index or key values are provided, they are used to access successive elements in a nested structure. Example usage:

:string:`Examples`

=> (do
...  (setv animals {"dog" "bark" "cat" "meow"}
...        numbers (, "zero" "one" "two" "three")
...        nested [0 1 ["a" "b" "c"] 3 4])
...  (print (get animals "dog"))
...  (print (get numbers 2))
...  (print (get nested 2 1)))

bark
two
b

Note

get raises a KeyError if a dictionary is queried for a non-existing key.

Note

get raises an IndexError if a list or a tuple is queried for an index that is out of bounds.

(import #* forms)

import is used to import modules, like in Python. There are several ways that import can be used.

Examples

;; Imports each of these modules
;;
;; Python:
;; import sys
;; import os.path
(import sys os.path)

;; Import from a module
;;
;; Python: from os.path import exists, isdir, isfile
(import os.path [exists isdir isfile])

;; Import with an alias
;;
;; Python: import sys as systest
(import sys :as systest)

;; You can list as many imports as you like of different types.
;;
;; Python:
;; from tests.resources import kwtest, function_with_a_dash
;; from os.path import exists, isdir as is_dir, isfile as is_file
;; import sys as systest
(import tests.resources [kwtest function-with-a-dash]
        os.path [exists
                 isdir :as dir?
                 isfile :as file?]
        sys :as systest)

;; Import all module functions into current namespace
;;
;; Python: from sys import *
(import sys *)
(eval-and-compile #* body)

eval-and-compile is a special form that takes any number of forms. The input forms are evaluated as soon as the eval-and-compile form is compiled, instead of being deferred until run-time. The input forms are also left in the program so they can be executed at run-time as usual. So, if you compile and immediately execute a program (as calling hy foo.hy does when foo.hy doesn’t have an up-to-date byte-compiled version), eval-and-compile forms will be evaluated twice.

One possible use of eval-and-compile is to make a function available both at compile-time (so a macro can call it while expanding) and run-time (so it can be called like any other function):

(eval-and-compile
  (defn add [x y]
    (+ x y)))

(defmacro m [x]
  (add x 2))

(print (m 3))     ; prints 5
(print (add 3 6)) ; prints 9

Had the defn not been wrapped in eval-and-compile, m wouldn’t be able to call add, because when the compiler was expanding (m 3), add wouldn’t exist yet.

(eval-when-compile #* body)

eval-when-compile is like eval-and-compile, but the code isn’t executed at run-time. Hence, eval-when-compile doesn’t directly contribute any code to the final program, although it can still change Hy’s state while compiling (e.g., by defining a function).

Examples

(eval-when-compile
  (defn add [x y]
    (+ x y)))

(defmacro m [x]
  (add x 2))

(print (m 3))     ; prints 5
(print (add 3 6)) ; raises NameError: name 'add' is not defined
(lfor binding iterable #* body)

The comprehension forms lfor, :hy:function:`sfor`, dfor, gfor, and for are used to produce various kinds of loops, including Python-style comprehensions. lfor in particular creates a list comprehension. A simple use of lfor is:

=> (lfor x (range 5) (* 2 x))
[0 2 4 6 8]

x is the name of a new variable, which is bound to each element of (range 5). Each such element in turn is used to evaluate the value form (* 2 x), and the results are accumulated into a list.

Here’s a more complex example:

=> (lfor
...  x (range 3)
...  y (range 3)
...  :if (!= x y)
...  :setv total (+ x y)
...  [x y total])
[[0 1 1] [0 2 2] [1 0 1] [1 2 3] [2 0 2] [2 1 3]]

When there are several iteration clauses (here, the pairs of forms x (range 3) and y (range 3)), the result works like a nested loop or Cartesian product: all combinations are considered in lexicographic order.

The general form of lfor is:

(lfor CLAUSES VALUE)

where the VALUE is an arbitrary form that is evaluated to produce each element of the result list, and CLAUSES is any number of clauses. There are several types of clauses:

  • Iteration clauses, which look like LVALUE ITERABLE. The LVALUE is usually just a symbol, but could be something more complicated, like [x y].

  • :async LVALUE ITERABLE, which is an asynchronous form of iteration clause.

  • :do FORM, which simply evaluates the FORM. If you use (continue) or (break) here, they will apply to the innermost iteration clause before the :do.

  • :setv LVALUE RVALUE, which is equivalent to :do (setv LVALUE RVALUE).

  • :if CONDITION, which is equivalent to :do (if (not CONDITION) (continue)).

For lfor, sfor, gfor, and dfor, variables are scoped as if the comprehension form were its own function, so variables defined by an iteration clause or :setv are not visible outside the form. In fact, these forms are implemented as generator functions whenever they contain Python statements, with the attendant consequences for calling return. By contrast, for shares the caller’s scope.

(dfor binding iterable #* body)

dfor creates a dictionary comprehension. Its syntax is the same as that of :hy:func:`lfor except that the final value form must be a literal list of two elements, the first of which becomes each key and the second of which becomes each value.

Examples

=> (dfor x (range 5) [x (* x 10)])
{0 0  1 10  2 20  3 30  4 40}
(gfor binding iterable #* body)

gfor creates a generator expression. Its syntax is the same as that of lfor. The difference is that gfor returns an iterator, which evaluates and yields values one at a time.

Examples

=> (import itertools [count take-while])
=> (setv accum [])
=> (list (take-while
...  (fn [x] (< x 5))
...  (gfor x (count) :do (.append accum x) x)))
[0 1 2 3 4]
=> accum
[0 1 2 3 4 5]
(sfor binding iterable #* body)

sfor creates a set comprehension. (sfor CLAUSES VALUE) is equivalent to (set (lfor CLAUSES VALUE)). See lfor.

(setv #* args)

setv is used to bind a value, object, or function to a symbol.

Examples

=> (setv names ["Alice" "Bob" "Charlie"])
=> (print names)
['Alice', 'Bob', 'Charlie']

=> (setv counter (fn [collection item] (.count collection item)))
=> (counter [1 2 3 4 5 2 3] 2)
2

You can provide more than one target–value pair, and the assignments will be made in order:

=> (setv  x 1  y x  x 2)
=> (print x y)
2 1

You can perform parallel assignments or unpack the source value with square brackets and unpack-iterable:

=> (setv duo ["tim" "eric"])
=> (setv [guy1 guy2] duo)
=> (print guy1 guy2)
tim eric

=> (setv [letter1 letter2 #* others] "abcdefg")
=> (print letter1 letter2 others)
a b ['c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g']
(setx #* args)

Whereas setv creates an assignment statement, setx creates an assignment expression (see PEP 572). It requires Python 3.8 or later. Only one target–value pair is allowed, and the target must be a bare symbol, but the setx form returns the assigned value instead of None.

Examples

=> (when (> (setx x (+ 1 2)) 0)
...  (print x "is greater than 0"))
3 is greater than 0
(match subject #* cases)

The match form creates a match statement. It requires Python 3.10 or later. The first argument should be the subject, and any remaining arguments should be pairs of patterns and results. The match form returns the value of the corresponding result, or None if no case matched. For example:

=> (match (+ 1 1)
...  1 "one"
...  2 "two"
...  3 "three")
"two"

You can use do to build a complex result form. Patterns, as in Python match statements, are interpreted specially and can’t be arbitrary forms. Use (| …) for OR patterns, PATTERN :as NAME for AS patterns, and syntax like the usual Hy syntax for literal, capture, value, sequence, mapping, and class patterns. Guards are specified with :if FORM. Here’s a more complex example:

=> (match (, 100 200)
...  [100 300]               "Case 1"
...  [100 200] :if flag      "Case 2"
...  [900   y]               f"Case 3, y: {y}"
...  [100 (| 100 200) :as y] f"Case 4, y: {y}"
...  _                       "Case 5, I match anything!")

This will match case 2 if flag is true and case 4 otherwise.

match can also match against class instances by keyword (or positionally if its __match_args__ attribute is defined, see pep 636):

=> (with-decorator
...  dataclass
...  (defclass Point []
...    (^int x)
...    (^int y)))
=> (match (Point 1 2)
...  (Point 1 x) :if (= (% x 2) 0) x
2
(defclass class-name super-classes #* body)

New classes are declared with defclass. It can take optional parameters in the following order: a list defining (a) possible super class(es) and a string (docstring).

Examples

=> (defclass class-name [super-class-1 super-class-2]
...   "docstring"
...
...   (setv attribute1 value1)
...   (setv attribute2 value2)
...
...   (defn method [self] (print "hello!")))

Both values and functions can be bound on the new class as shown by the example below:

=> (defclass Cat []
...  (setv age None)
...  (setv colour "white")
...
...  (defn speak [self] (print "Meow")))

=> (setv spot (Cat))
=> (setv spot.colour "Black")
=> (.speak spot)
Meow
(del object)

New in version 0.9.12.

del removes an object from the current namespace.

Examples

=> (setv foo 42)
=> (del foo)
=> foo
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<console>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'foo' is not defined

del can also remove objects from mappings, lists, and more.

=> (setv test (list (range 10)))
=> test
[0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]
=> (del (cut test 2 4)) ;; remove items from 2 to 4 excluded
=> test
[0 1 4 5 6 7 8 9]
=> (setv dic {"foo" "bar"})
=> dic
{"foo" "bar"}
=> (del (get dic "foo"))
=> dic
{}
(nonlocal object)

New in version 0.11.1.

nonlocal can be used to mark a symbol as not local to the current scope. The parameters are the names of symbols to mark as nonlocal. This is necessary to modify variables through nested fn scopes:

Examples

(defn some-function []
  (setv x 0)
  (register-some-callback
    (fn [stuff]
      (nonlocal x)
      (setv x stuff))))

Without the call to (nonlocal x), the inner function would redefine x to stuff inside its local scope instead of overwriting the x in the outer function.

See PEP3104 for further information.

(py string)

py parses the given Python code at compile-time and inserts the result into the generated abstract syntax tree. Thus, you can mix Python code into a Hy program. Only a Python expression is allowed, not statements; use pys if you want to use Python statements. The value of the expression is returned from the py form.

(print "A result from Python:" (py "'hello' + 'world'"))

The code must be given as a single string literal, but you can still use macros, hy.eval, and related tools to construct the py form. If having to backslash-escape internal double quotes is getting you down, try a bracket string. If you want to evaluate some Python code that’s only defined at run-time, try the standard Python function eval().

Python code need not syntactically round-trip if you use hy2py on a Hy program that uses py or pys. For example, comments will be removed.

(pys string)

As py, but the code can consist of zero or more statements, including compound statements such as for and def. pys always returns None. Also, the code string is dedented with textwrap.dedent() before parsing, which allows you to intend the code to match the surrounding Hy code, but significant leading whitespace in embedded string literals will be removed.

(pys "myvar = 5")
(print "myvar is" myvar)
(quasiquote form)

quasiquote allows you to quote a form, but also selectively evaluate expressions. Expressions inside a quasiquote can be selectively evaluated using unquote (~). The evaluated form can also be spliced using unquote-splice (~@). Quasiquote can be also written using the backquote (`) symbol.

Examples

;; let `qux' be a variable with value (bar baz)
`(foo ~qux)
; equivalent to '(foo (bar baz))
`(foo ~@qux)
; equivalent to '(foo bar baz)
(quote form)

quote returns the form passed to it without evaluating it. quote can alternatively be written using the apostrophe (') symbol.

Examples

=> (setv x '(print "Hello World"))
=> x  ; variable x is set to unevaluated expression
hy.models.Expression([
  hy.models.Symbol('print'),
  hy.models.String('Hello World')])
=> (hy.eval x)
Hello World
(require #* args)

require is used to import macros from one or more given modules. It allows parameters in all the same formats as import. The require form itself produces no code in the final program: its effect is purely at compile-time, for the benefit of macro expansion. Specifically, require imports each named module and then makes each requested macro available in the current module.

The following are all equivalent ways to call a macro named foo in the module mymodule:

Examples

(require mymodule)
(mymodule.foo 1)

(require mymodule :as M)
(M.foo 1)

(require mymodule [foo])
(foo 1)

(require mymodule *)
(foo 1)

(require mymodule [foo :as bar])
(bar 1)

Macros that call macros

One aspect of require that may be surprising is what happens when one macro’s expansion calls another macro. Suppose mymodule.hy looks like this:

(defmacro repexpr [n expr]
  ; Evaluate the expression n times
  ; and collect the results in a list.
  `(list (map (fn [_] ~expr) (range ~n))))

(defmacro foo [n]
  `(repexpr ~n (input "Gimme some input: ")))

And then, in your main program, you write:

(require mymodule [foo])

(print (mymodule.foo 3))

Running this raises NameError: name 'repexpr' is not defined, even though writing (print (foo 3)) in mymodule works fine. The trouble is that your main program doesn’t have the macro repexpr available, since it wasn’t imported (and imported under exactly that name, as opposed to a qualified name). You could do (require mymodule *) or (require mymodule [foo repexpr]), but a less error-prone approach is to change the definition of foo to require whatever sub-macros it needs:

(defmacro foo [n]
  `(do
    (require mymodule)
    (mymodule.repexpr ~n (input "Gimme some input: "))))

It’s wise to use (require mymodule) here rather than (require mymodule [repexpr]) to avoid accidentally shadowing a function named repexpr in the main program.

Note

Qualified macro names

Note that in the current implementation, there’s a trick in qualified macro names, like mymodule.foo and M.foo in the above example. These names aren’t actually attributes of module objects; they’re just identifiers with periods in them. In fact, mymodule and M aren’t defined by these require forms, even at compile-time. None of this will hurt you unless try to do introspection of the current module’s set of defined macros, which isn’t really supported anyway.

(return object)

return compiles to a return statement. It exits the current function, returning its argument if provided with one or None if not.

Examples

=> (defn f [x] (for [n (range 10)] (when (> n x) (return n))))
=> (f 3.9)
4

Note that in Hy, return is necessary much less often than in Python, since the last form of a function is returned automatically. Hence, an explicit return is only necessary to exit a function early.

=> (defn f [x] (setv y 10) (+ x y))
=> (f 4)
14

To get Python’s behavior of returning None when execution reaches the end of a function, put None there yourself.

=> (defn f [x] (setv y 10) (+ x y) None)
=> (print (f 4))
None
(cut coll [start None] [stop None] [step None)

cut can be used to take a subset of a list and create a new list from it. The form takes at least one parameter specifying the list to cut. Two optional parameters can be used to give the start and end position of the subset. If only one is given, it is taken as the stop value. The third optional parameter is used to control the step stride between the elements.

cut follows the same rules as its Python counterpart. Negative indices are counted starting from the end of the list. Some example usage:

Examples

=> (setv collection (range 10))
=> (cut collection)
[0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]

=> (cut collection 5)
[0 1 2 3 4]

=> (cut collection 2 8)
[2 3 4 5 6 7]

=> (cut collection 2 8 2)
[2 4 6]

=> (cut collection -4 -2)
[6 7]
(raise [exception None])

The raise form can be used to raise an Exception at runtime. Example usage:

Examples

(raise)
; re-rase the last exception

(raise IOError)
; raise an IOError

(raise (IOError "foobar"))
; raise an IOError("foobar")

raise can accept a single argument (an Exception class or instance) or no arguments to re-raise the last Exception.

(try #* body)

The try form is used to catch exceptions (except) and run cleanup actions (finally).

Examples

(try
  (error-prone-function)
  (another-error-prone-function)
  (except [ZeroDivisionError]
    (print "Division by zero"))
  (except [[IndexError KeyboardInterrupt]]
    (print "Index error or Ctrl-C"))
  (except [e ValueError]
    (print "ValueError:" (repr e)))
  (except [e [TabError PermissionError ReferenceError]]
    (print "Some sort of error:" (repr e)))
  (else
    (print "No errors"))
  (finally
    (print "All done")))

The first argument of try is its body, which can contain one or more forms. Then comes any number of except clauses, then optionally an else clause, then optionally a finally clause. If an exception is raised with a matching except clause during the execution of the body, that except clause will be executed. If no exceptions are raised, the else clause is executed. The finally clause will be executed last regardless of whether an exception was raised.

The return value of try is the last form of the except clause that was run, or the last form of else if no exception was raised, or the try body if there is no else clause.

unpack-iterable/unpack-mapping

(Also known as the splat operator, star operator, argument expansion, argument explosion, argument gathering, and varargs, among others…)

unpack-iterable and unpack-mapping allow an iterable or mapping object (respectively) to provide positional or keywords arguments (respectively) to a function.

=> (defn f [a b c d] [a b c d])
=> (f (unpack-iterable [1 2]) (unpack-mapping {"c" 3 "d" 4}))
[1 2 3 4]

unpack-iterable is usually written with the shorthand #*, and unpack-mapping with #**.

=> (f #* [1 2] #** {"c" 3 "d" 4})
[1 2 3 4]

Unpacking is allowed in a variety of contexts, and you can unpack more than once in one expression (PEP 3132, PEP 448).

=> (setv [a #* b c] [1 2 3 4 5])
=> [a b c]
[1 [2 3 4] 5]
=> [#* [1 2] #* [3 4]]
[1 2 3 4]
=> {#** {1 2} #** {3 4}}
{1 2  3 4}
=> (f #* [1] #* [2] #** {"c" 3} #** {"d" 4})
[1 2  3 4]
(unquote symbol)

Within a quasiquoted form, unquote forces evaluation of a symbol. unquote is aliased to the tilde (~) symbol.

=> (setv nickname "Cuddles")
=> (quasiquote (= nickname (unquote nickname)))
'(= nickname "Cuddles")
=> `(= nickname ~nickname)
'(= nickname "Cuddles")
(unquote-splice symbol)

unquote-splice forces the evaluation of a symbol within a quasiquoted form, much like unquote. unquote-splice can be used when the symbol being unquoted contains an iterable value, as it “splices” that iterable into the quasiquoted form. unquote-splice can also be used when the value evaluates to a false value such as None, False, or 0, in which case the value is treated as an empty list and thus does not splice anything into the form. unquote-splice is aliased to the ~@ syntax.

=> (setv nums [1 2 3 4])
=> (quasiquote (+ (unquote-splice nums)))
'(+ 1 2 3 4)
=> `(+ ~@nums)
'(+ 1 2 3 4)
=> `[1 2 ~@(if (< (get nums 0) 0) nums)]
'[1 2]

Here, the last example evaluates to ('+' 1 2), since the condition (< (nth nums 0) 0) is False, which makes this if expression evaluate to None, because the if expression here does not have an else clause. unquote-splice then evaluates this as an empty value, leaving no effects on the list it is enclosed in, therefore resulting in ('+' 1 2).

(while condition #* body)

while compiles to a while statement. It is used to execute a set of forms as long as a condition is met. The first argument to while is the condition, and any remaining forms constitute the body. The following example will output “Hello world!” to the screen indefinitely:

(while True (print "Hello world!"))

The last form of a while loop can be an else clause, which is executed after the loop terminates, unless it exited abnormally (e.g., with break). So,

(setv x 2)
(while x
   (print "In body")
   (-= x 1)
   (else
     (print "In else")))

prints

In body
In body
In else

If you put a break or continue form in the condition of a while loop, it will apply to the very same loop rather than an outer loop, even if execution is yet to ever reach the loop body. (Hy compiles a while loop with statements in its condition by rewriting it so that the condition is actually in the body.) So,

(for [x [1]]
   (print "In outer loop")
   (while
     (do
       (print "In condition")
       (break)
       (print "This won't print.")
       True)
     (print "This won't print, either."))
   (print "At end of outer loop"))

prints

In outer loop
In condition
At end of outer loop
(with #* args)

Wrap execution of body within a context manager given as bracket args. with is used to wrap the execution of a block within a context manager. The context manager can then set up the local system and tear it down in a controlled manner. The archetypical example of using with is when processing files. If only a single expression is supplied, or the argument is _, then no variable is bound to the expression, as shown below.

Examples:
=> (with [arg (expr)] block)
=> (with [(expr)] block)
=> (with [arg1 (expr1)  _ (expr2)  arg3 (expr3)] block)

The following example will open the NEWS file and print its content to the screen. The file is automatically closed after it has been processed:

=> (with [f (open \"NEWS\")] (print (.read f)))

with returns the value of its last form, unless it suppresses an exception (because the context manager’s __exit__ method returned true), in which case it returns None. So, the previous example could also be written:

=> (print (with [f (open \"NEWS\")] (.read f)))
(with/a #* args)

Wrap execution of body within a context manager given as bracket args. with/a behaves like with, but is used to wrap the execution of a block within an asynchronous context manager. The context manager can then set up the local system and tear it down in a controlled manner asynchronously. Examples:

::

=> (with/a [arg (expr)] block) => (with/a [(expr)] block) => (with/a [_ (expr) arg (expr) _ (expr)] block)

Note

with/a returns the value of its last form, unless it suppresses an exception (because the context manager’s __aexit__ method returned true), in which case it returns None.

(with-decorator #* args)

with-decorator is used to wrap a function with another. The function performing the decoration should accept a single value: the function being decorated, and return a new function. with-decorator takes a minimum of two parameters: the function performing decoration and the function being decorated. More than one decorator function can be applied; they will be applied in order from outermost to innermost, ie. the first decorator will be the outermost one, and so on. Decorators with arguments are called just like a function call.

(with-decorator decorator-fun
   (defn some-function [] ...)

(with-decorator decorator1 decorator2 ...
   (defn some-function [] ...)

(with-decorator (decorator arg) ..
   (defn some-function [] ...)

In the following example, inc-decorator is used to decorate the function addition with a function that takes two parameters and calls the decorated function with values that are incremented by 1. When the decorated addition is called with values 1 and 1, the end result will be 4 (1+1 + 1+1).

=> (defn inc-decorator [func]
...  (fn [value-1 value-2] (func (+ value-1 1) (+ value-2 1))))
=> (defn inc2-decorator [func]
...  (fn [value-1 value-2] (func (+ value-1 2) (+ value-2 2))))

=> (with-decorator inc-decorator (defn addition [a b] (+ a b)))
=> (addition 1 1)
4
=> (with-decorator inc2-decorator inc-decorator
...  (defn addition [a b] (+ a b)))
=> (addition 1 1)
8
(yield object)

yield is used to create a generator object that returns one or more values. The generator is iterable and therefore can be used in loops, list comprehensions and other similar constructs.

The function random-numbers shows how generators can be used to generate infinite series without consuming infinite amount of memory.

Examples

=> (defn multiply [bases coefficients]
...  (for [(, base coefficient) (zip bases coefficients)]
...   (yield (* base coefficient))))

=> (multiply (range 5) (range 5))
<generator object multiply at 0x978d8ec>

=> (list (multiply (range 10) (range 10)))
[0 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81]

=> (import random)
=> (defn random-numbers [low high]
...  (while True (yield (.randint random low high))))
=> (list (take 15 (random-numbers 1 50)))
[7 41 6 22 32 17 5 38 18 38 17 14 23 23 19]
(yield-from object)

New in version 0.9.13.

yield-from is used to call a subgenerator. This is useful if you want your coroutine to be able to delegate its processes to another coroutine, say, if using something fancy like asyncio.

macro(hy.core.macros.#@ expr)

with-decorator tag macro

macro(hy.core.macros.cond #* branches)

Build a nested if clause with each branch a [cond result] bracket pair.

Examples

=> (cond [condition-1 result-1]
...      [condition-2 result-2])
(if condition-1 result-1
  (if condition-2 result-2))

If only the condition is given in a branch, then the condition is also used as the result. The expansion of this single argument version is demonstrated below:

=> (cond [condition-1]
...       [condition-2])
(if condition-1 condition-1
  (if condition-2 condition-2))

As shown below, only the first matching result block is executed:

=> (defn check-value [value]
...   (cond [(< value 5) (print "value is smaller than 5")]
...         [(= value 5) (print "value is equal to 5")]
...         [(> value 5) (print "value is greater than 5")]
...         [True (print "value is something that it should not be")]))

=> (check-value 6)
"value is greater than 5"
macro(hy.core.macros.doc symbol)

macro documentation

Gets help for a macro function available in this module. Use require to make other macros available.

Use (help foo) instead for help with runtime objects.

macro(hy.core.macros.when test #* body)

Execute body when test is true

when is similar to unless, except it tests when the given conditional is True. It is not possible to have an else block in a when macro. The following shows the expansion of the macro.

Examples

=> (when conditional statement)
(if conditional (do statement))

Placeholder macros

There are a few core macros that are unusual in that all they do, when expanded, is crash, regardless of their arguments:

  • else

  • except

  • finally

  • unpack-mapping

  • unquote

  • unquote-splice

The purpose of these macros is merely to reserve their names. Each symbol is interpreted specially by one or more other core macros (e.g., else in while) and thus, in these contexts, any definition of these names as a function or macro would be ignored. If you really want to, you can override these names like any others, but beware that, for example, trying to call your new else inside while may not work.

Hy

The hy module is auto imported into every Hy module and provides convient access to the following methods

(hy.read-str input)

This is essentially a wrapper around hy.read which reads expressions from a string

Examples

=> (hy.read-str "(print 1)")
'(print 1)
=> (hy.eval (hy.read-str "(print 1)"))
1
(read [ [from-file <_io.TextIOWrapper name='<stdin>' mode='r' encoding='UTF-8'>] eof ])

Read from input and returns a tokenized string.

Can take a given input buffer to read from, and a single byte as EOF (defaults to an empty string).

Reads the next Hy expression from from-file (defaulting to sys.stdin), and can take a single byte as EOF (defaults to an empty string). Raises EOFError if from-file ends before a complete expression can be parsed.

Examples

=> (hy.read)
(+ 2 2)
'(+ 2 2)
=> (hy.eval (hy.read))
(+ 2 2)
4
=> (import io)
=> (setv buffer (io.StringIO "(+ 2 2)\n(- 2 1)"))
=> (hy.eval (hy.read :from-file buffer))
4
=> (hy.eval (hy.read :from-file buffer))
1
=> (with [f (open "example.hy" "w")]
...  (.write f "(print 'hello)\n(print "hyfriends!")"))
35
=> (with [f (open "example.hy")]
...  (try (while True
...         (setv exp (hy.read f))
...         (print "OHY" exp)
...         (hy.eval exp))
...       (except [e EOFError]
...         (print "EOF!"))))
OHY hy.models.Expression([
  hy.models.Symbol('print'),
  hy.models.Expression([
    hy.models.Symbol('quote'),
    hy.models.Symbol('hello')])])
hello
OHY hy.models.Expression([
  hy.models.Symbol('print'),
  hy.models.String('hyfriends!')])
hyfriends!
EOF!
(hy.eval hytree locals module ast-callback compiler filename source [import-stdlib True])

Evaluates a quoted expression and returns the value.

If you’re evaluating hand-crafted AST trees, make sure the line numbers are set properly. Try fix_missing_locations and related functions in the Python ast library.

Examples

=> (hy.eval '(print "Hello World"))
"Hello World"

If you want to evaluate a string, use read-str to convert it to a form first:

=> (hy.eval (hy.read-str "(+ 1 1)"))
2
Parameters
  • hytree (Object) – The Hy AST object to evaluate.

  • locals (Optional[dict]) – Local environment in which to evaluate the Hy tree. Defaults to the calling frame.

  • module (Optional[Union[str, types.ModuleType]]) – Module, or name of the module, to which the Hy tree is assigned and the global values are taken. The module associated with compiler takes priority over this value. When neither module nor compiler is specified, the calling frame’s module is used.

  • ast_callback (Optional[Callable]) – A callback that is passed the Hy compiled tree and resulting expression object, in that order, after compilation but before evaluation.

  • compiler (Optional[HyASTCompiler]) – An existing Hy compiler to use for compilation. Also serves as the module value when given.

  • filename (Optional[str]) – The filename corresponding to the source for tree. This will be overridden by the filename field of tree, if any; otherwise, it defaults to “<string>”. When compiler is given, its filename field value is always used.

  • source (Optional[str]) – A string containing the source code for tree. This will be overridden by the source field of tree, if any; otherwise, if None, an attempt will be made to obtain it from the module given by module. When compiler is given, its source field value is always used.

Returns

Result of evaluating the Hy compiled tree.

Return type

Any

(hy.repr obj)

This function is Hy’s equivalent of Python’s built-in repr. It returns a string representing the input object in Hy syntax.

Like repr in Python, hy.repr can round-trip many kinds of values. Round-tripping implies that given an object x, (hy.eval (hy.read-str (hy.repr x))) returns x, or at least a value that’s equal to x.

Examples

=> hy.repr [1 2 3])
"[1 2 3]"
=> (repr [1 2 3])
"[1, 2, 3]"
(hy.repr-register types f placeholder)

hy.repr-register lets you set the function that hy.repr calls to represent a type.

Examples

 => (hy.repr-register the-type fun)

 => (defclass C)
 => (hy.repr-register C (fn [x] "cuddles"))
 => (hy.repr [1 (C) 2])
 "[1 cuddles 2]"

 If the type of an object passed to ``hy.repr`` doesn't have a registered
 function, ``hy.repr`` falls back on ``repr``.

 Registered functions often call ``hy.repr`` themselves. ``hy.repr`` will
 automatically detect self-references, even deeply nested ones, and
 output ``"..."`` for them instead of calling the usual registered
 function. To use a placeholder other than ``"..."``, pass a string of
 your choice to the keyword argument ``:placeholder`` of
 ``hy.repr-register``.

=> (defclass Container [object]
...   (defn __init__ (fn [self value]
...     (setv self.value value))))
=>    (hy.repr-register Container :placeholder "HY THERE" (fn [x]
...      (+ "(Container " (hy.repr x.value) ")")))
=> (setv container (Container 5))
=> (setv container.value container)
=> (print (hy.repr container))
'(Container HY THERE)'
(hy.mangle s)

Stringify the argument and convert it to a valid Python identifier according to Hy’s mangling rules.

Examples

=> (hy.mangle 'foo-bar)
"foo_bar"

=> (hy.mangle 'foo-bar?)
"is_foo_bar"

=> (hy.mangle '*)
"hyx_XasteriskX"

=> (hy.mangle '_foo/a?)
"_hyx_is_fooXsolidusXa"

=> (hy.mangle '-->)
"hyx_XhyphenHminusX_XgreaterHthan_signX"

=> (hy.mangle '<--)
"hyx_XlessHthan_signX__"
(hy.unmangle s)

Stringify the argument and try to convert it to a pretty unmangled form. This may not round-trip, because different Hy symbol names can mangle to the same Python identifier. See Hy’s mangling rules.

Examples

=> (hy.unmangle 'foo_bar)
"foo-bar"

=> (hy.unmangle 'is_foo_bar)
"foo-bar?"

=> (hy.unmangle 'hyx_XasteriskX)
"*"

=> (hy.unmangle '_hyx_is_fooXsolidusXa)
"_foo/a?"

=> (hy.unmangle 'hyx_XhyphenHminusX_XgreaterHthan_signX)
"-->"

=> (hy.unmangle 'hyx_XlessHthan_signX__)
"<--"

=> (hy.unmangle '__dunder_name__)
"__dunder-name__"
(hy.disassemble tree [codegen False])

Return the python AST for a quoted Hy tree as a string.

If the second argument codegen is true, generate python code instead.

New in version 0.10.0.

Dump the Python AST for given Hy tree to standard output. If codegen is True, the function prints Python code instead.

Examples

=> (hy.disassemble '(print "Hello World!"))
Module(
 body=[
     Expr(value=Call(func=Name(id='print'), args=[Str(s='Hello World!')], keywords=[], starargs=None, kwargs=None))])
=> (hy.disassemble '(print "Hello World!") True)
print('Hello World!')
(hy.macroexpand form [result-ok False])

Return the full macro expansion of form.

New in version 0.10.0.

Examples

=> (require hyrule [->])
=> (hy.macroexpand '(-> (a b) (x y)))
'(x (a b) y)
=> (hy.macroexpand '(-> (a b) (-> (c d) (e f))))
'(e (c (a b) d) f)
(hy.macroexpand-1 form)

Return the single step macro expansion of form.

New in version 0.10.0.

Examples

=> (require hyrule [->])
=> (hy.macroexpand-1 '(-> (a b) (-> (c d) (e f))))
'(-> (a b) (c d) (e f))
(hy.gensym [g G])

Generate a unique symbol for use in macros without accidental name clashes.

New in version 0.9.12.

Examples

=> (hy.gensym)
'_G￿1
=> (hy.gensym "x")
'_x￿2
(hy.as-model x)

Recurisvely promote an object x into its canonical model form.

When creating macros its possible to return non-Hy model objects or even create an expression with non-Hy model elements:

=> (defmacro hello []
...  "world!")

=> (defmacro print-inc [a]
...  `(print ~(+ a 1)))
=> (print-inc 1)
2  ; in this case the unquote form (+ 1 1) would splice the literal
   ; integer ``2`` into the print statement, *not* the model representation
   ; ``(hy.model.Integer 2)``

This is perfectly fine, because Hy autoboxes these literal values into their respective model forms at compilation time.

The one case where this distinction between the spliced composit form and the canonical model tree representation matters, is when comparing some spliced model tree with another known tree:

=> (= `(print ~(+ 1 1)) '(print 2))
False  ; False because the literal int ``2`` in the spliced form is not
       ; equal to the ``(hy.model.Integer 2)`` value in the known form.

=> (= (hy.as-model `(print ~(+ 1 1)) '(print 2)))
True  ; True because ``as-model`` has walked the expression and promoted
      ; the literal int ``2`` to its model for ``(hy.model.Integer 2)``

Python Operators

Python provides various binary and unary operators. These are usually invoked in Hy using core macros of the same name: for example, (+ 1 2) calls the core macro named +, which uses Python’s addition operator. An exception to the names being the same is that Python’s == is called = in Hy.

By importing from the module hy.pyops (typically with a star import, as in (import hy.pyops *)), you can also use these operators as functions. Functions are first-class objects, so you can say things like (map - xs) to negate all the numbers in the list xs. Since macros shadow functions, forms like (- 1 2) will still call the macro instead of the function.

The functions in hy.pyops have the same semantics as their macro equivalents, with one exception: functions can’t short-circuit, so the functions for the logical operators, such as and, unconditionally evaluate all arguments.

(hy.pyops.!= a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed != operator perform neq comparison on a1 by a2, …, a-rest.

(hy.pyops.% x y)

Shadowed % operator takes x modulo y.

(hy.pyops.& a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed & operator performs bitwise-and on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.* #* args)

Shadowed * operator multiplies args.

(hy.pyops.** a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed ** operator takes a1 to the power of a2, …, a-rest.

(hy.pyops.+ #* args)

Shadowed + operator adds args.

(hy.pyops.- a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed - operator subtracts each a-rest from a1.

(hy.pyops./ a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed / operator divides a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.// a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed // operator floor divides a1 by a2, …, a-rest.

(hy.pyops.< a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed < operator perform lt comparison on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.<< a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed << operator performs left-shift on a1 by a2, …, a-rest.

(hy.pyops.<= a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed <= operator perform le comparison on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.= a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed = operator perform eq comparison on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.> a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed > operator perform gt comparison on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.>= a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed >= operator perform ge comparison on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.>> a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed >> operator performs right-shift on a1 by a2, …, a-rest.

(hy.pyops.@ a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed @ operator matrix multiples a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.[x y])

Shadowed ^ operator performs bitwise-xor on x and y.

(hy.pyops.and #* args)

Shadowed and keyword perform and on args.

and is used in logical expressions. It takes at least two parameters. If all parameters evaluate to True, the last parameter is returned. In any other case, the first false value will be returned.

Note

and short-circuits and stops evaluating parameters as soon as the first false is encountered.

Examples

=> (and True False)
False
=> (and False (print "hello"))
False
=> (and True True)
True
=> (and True 1)
1
=> (and True [] False True)
[]
(hy.pyops.get coll key1 #* keys)

Access item in coll indexed by key1, with optional keys nested-access.

get is used to access single elements in collections. get takes at least two parameters: the data structure and the index or key of the item. It will then return the corresponding value from the collection. If multiple index or key values are provided, they are used to access successive elements in a nested structure.

Note

get raises a KeyError if a dictionary is queried for a non-existing key.

Note

get raises an IndexError if a list or a tuple is queried for an index that is out of bounds.

Examples

=> (do
...   (setv animals {"dog" "bark" "cat" "meow"}
...         numbers (, "zero" "one" "two" "three")
...         nested [0 1 ["a" "b" "c"] 3 4])
...   (print (get animals "dog"))
...   (print (get numbers 2))
...   (print (get nested 2 1))
bark
two
b
(hy.pyops.in a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed in keyword perform a1 in a2 in ….

(hy.pyops.is a1 #* a-rest)

Shadowed is keyword perform is on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.not x)

Shadowed not keyword perform not on x.

not is used in logical expressions. It takes a single parameter and returns a reversed truth value. If True is given as a parameter, False will be returned, and vice-versa.

Examples

=> (not True)
False
=> (not False)
True
=> (not None)
True
(hy.pyops.not-in a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed not in keyword perform a1 not in a2 not in….

(hy.pyops.not? a1 a2 #* a-rest)

Shadowed is-not keyword perform is-not on a1 by a2, …, a-rest.

(hy.pyops.or #* args)

Shadowed or keyword perform or on args.

or is used in logical expressions. It takes at least two parameters. It will return the first non-false parameter. If no such value exists, the last parameter will be returned.

Examples

=> (or True False)
True
=> (or False False)
False
=> (or False 1 True False)
1

Note

or short-circuits and stops evaluating parameters as soon as the first true value is encountered.

=> (or True (print "hello"))
True
(hy.pyops.| #* args)

Shadowed | operator performs bitwise-or on a1 by each a-rest.

(hy.pyops.~ x)

Shadowed ~ operator performs bitwise-negation on x.

Reserved

(hy.reserved.macros)

Return a frozenset of Hy’s core macro names.

(hy.reserved.names)

Return a frozenset of reserved symbol names.

The result of the first call is cached.

The output includes all of Hy’s core functions and macros, plus all Python reserved words. All names are in unmangled form (e.g., not-in rather than not_in).

Examples

=> (import hy.extra.reserved)
=> (in "defclass" (hy.extra.reserved.names))
True